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Tier I Text
Writing About Tier I Text

Note: Dates in square brackets represent the last update date.
Links without dates link to dynamic files.

Training Materials

Educator Certification data Sheet

Materials PDFs

Text Graphic Organizers
PrimaryAdvancedWriting About Text
English Graphic Organizers

Use organizers from appropriate model
(on the left).

Spanish Graphic Organizers

Use organizers from appropriate model
(on the left).

Text-Sourced Vocabulary
English Student Quadrants
Spanish Student Quadrants
English Teacher PlanningSpanish Teacher Planning
Coaching Forms
Self-Reflection/Peer Observation Forms
Prompts & Frames


Good Reader Posters


USOE Reading Software Resources

Data About Training

Educator Response to UURC Tier I Text Practica [8/18/15]

Wide Reading Resources

  • ReadWorks.org - Non-Fiction Articles
  • Newsela - Non-Fiction Articles with Adjustable Reading Levels
  • Moby Max - Short, High-Interest Grade-Level Texts

Books with Spanish-English cognates

Teachers' Choices Cognate Database


Brown, K. (2016, Aug.). Repeated Readings: What Can We Learn From Eye Movements?. Presented at the University of Utah Reading Clinic. [PPT] [PDF]

Robbins, K. (2016, Aug.). Writing About Tier I Text. Presented at the University of Utah Reading Clinic. [PPT] [PDF]

Research Base

Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., Sandora, C., Kucan, L., & Worthy, J. (1996). Questioning the Author: A Yearling Classroom Implementation to Engage Students with Text. Elementary School Journal, 96 (4), 385-414.

Hillocks, G., Jr. (1987, May). Synthesis of Research on Teaching Writing. Educational Leadership, 44 (8), 71-82.

Kuhn, M.R., Schwanenflugel, P.J., Morris, R.D., Morrow, L.M., Woo, D.G., Meisinger, E.B., Sevcik, R.A., Bradley, B.A., & Stahl, S.A. (2006). Teaching Children to Become Fluent and Automatic Readers. Journal of Literacy Research, 38 (4), 357-387.
[Annotated Abstract]

Schwanenflugel, P.J., Meisinger, E.B., Wisenbaker, J.M., Kuhn, M.R., Strauss, G.P. & Morris, R.D. (2006). Becoming a Fluent and Automatic Reader in the Early Elementary School Years. Reading Research Quarterly, 41 (4), 496-522.

Stahl, S.A. & Heubach, K.M. (2005). Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction. Journal of Literacy Research, 37 (1), 25-60.

Published Application

Kuhn, M.R. & Schwanenflugel, P.J. (2009). Time, Engagement, and Support: Lessons from a Four-Year Fluency Intervention. In E.H. Hiebert (ed.), Reading More, Reading Better 141-160. New York: Guilford. [Annotated Copy]

Kuhn, M.R. & Woo, D.G. (2008). Fluency-Oriented Reading: Two Whole-Class Approaches. In M.R. Kuhn & Schwanenflugel (eds.), Fluency in the Classroom 17-35. New York: Guilford.

Schwanenflugel, P.J., Kuhn, M.R., & Ash, G.E. (2010). Sharing the Stage: Using Oral and Silent Wide Reading to Develop Proficient Reading in the Early Grades. In E.H. Hiebert & D.R. Reutzel (eds.), Revisiting Silent Reading: New Directions for Teachers and Researchers 181-197. Santa Cruz: TextProject, Inc.

Shanahan Support for Tier I Routines

Shanahan, T. (2016, Jan. 4). Kids Need to Read Within Instruction. Retrieved from https://shanahanonliteracy.com/blog/kids-need-to-read-within-instruction

Shanahan, T. (2015, May 13). How Much Text Complexity Can Teachers Scaffold? Retrieved from https://shanahanonliteracy.com/blog/how-much-text-complexity-can-a-teacher-scaffold

Shanahan, T. (2015, Apr. 23). Round Robin by Any Other Name... Oral Reading for Older Readers. Retrieved from https://shanahanonliteracy.com/blog/round-robin-by-any-other-name-oral-reading-for-older-readers

Shanahan, T. (2014). How and How Not to Prepare Students for the New Tests. The Reading Teacher, 68 (3), 184-188.